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False Memories and Memory Enhancement: Neuroscience Insights

Factors that contribute to memory errors, and steps to improve memory


Have you ever left your keys in a spot where you were sure you would remember, only to forget and have to retrace your steps? Or, have you ever vividly remembered an event that never actually happened? These everyday experiences highlight the fallibility and reconstructive nature of human memory. Fortunately, new neuroscience research is helping us understand the underlying mechanisms of memory formation and identify ways to enhance memory retention while avoiding the formation of false memories.
False Memory: What Is It?
Human memory is fallible, and people can easily remember events that never occurred or remember them differently from how they happened. A person can produce a false memory when a person to post-event information somewhat consistent with the original memory. For instance, showing a series of photos, participants who viewed a photograph of a stop sign may later falsely recall seeing a yield sign instead. The false memory was instigated when they were told that a yield sign was actually in the images.
Neural Mechanisms Involved in False Memory Formation
The hippocampus is a brain region critical for forming, consolidating, and retrieving memories. Recent research has shown that hippocampal activity can predict false memory formation. For example, St. Jacques, Wittmann, Singh, and Daselaar (2021) used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how neural activity in the hippocampus relates to forming false memories. Participants viewed a series of images and were later given false information about the images. The study found that people with high levels of cross-stage neural pattern similarity in the hippocampus were more likely to form false memories based on inaccurate information.
Shao, Chen, et al.'s (2023) research on predicting false memory derived from post-event inaccurate information using fMRI data showed that the hippocampus plays a central role in forming false memories. Precisely, patterns of neural activity in the hippocampus can predict the likelihood of developing a false memory. Furthermore, this research shows that the hippocampus, a region critical to memory formation, is also a source of memory errors when exposed to post-event information.
Factors Contributing to Memory Distortion
Post-event information can interfere with the original memory and produce a false memory similar to, but not identical to, the event itself. Several factors can influence the extent to which post-event information affects memory. These include:
1.The time delay between the actual event and the post-event information.
2.The degree of similarity between the post-event information and the actual event.
3.Individual factors such as age, personality, and cognitive abilities.

The research provides valuable information on the factors contributing to memory distortion, with conclusions such as time delay and similarity between post-event information and the actual event essential factors influencing memory accuracy. Thus, these factors should be considered when thinking about memory recall and strategies to improve memory retention and retrieval.
Tips for Improving Memory Retention
While false memory can be a frustrating experience, there are several strategies you can use to enhance memory retention and accuracy:
1.Engage in physical exercises, as studies show that it may help improve cognitive abilities and memory functions.
2.Study in short sessions with frequent breaks rather than trying to learn everything in one go.
3.Use mnemonic devices, visualization, and other memory aids to help you remember information effectively.
4.Get adequate sleep each night, as sleep is critical to consolidating memories.
5.Stay focused on the event and give a detailed description of events right after it happened.
Conclusion
The studies above indicate that human memory is a complex and nuanced cognitive ability prone to errors and inaccuracies. The insights offered by these studies are critical to our understanding of how the brain functions and how we can enhance our memory performance, particularly in situations where memory accuracy is essential, such as eyewitness testimony in legal settings. By continuing to explore the neural mechanisms underlying memory formation and conducting further research into strategies for improving memory accuracy, we can better understand the complexities of human memory and develop effective interventions for individuals who suffer from memory deficits.

reference:
psychology today

link:
https://www.psychologytoday.com/intl/blog/love-your-life/202305/false-memories-and-memory-enhancement-neuroscience-insights
36 replies
  1. Fatemeh alizadeh
    Fatemeh alizadeh says:

    Excessive alcohol consumption may put a person at risk for some brain-related health problems. Alcohol may increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. One out of six people drink alcohol excessively. Drinking too much alcohol can cause long-term health problems such as stroke, heart disease, and cancer. This article discusses the link between moderate and heavy alcohol consumption and Alzheimer’s and the risks of other conditions.

    Long-term alcohol consumption may lead to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). AD is a form of dementia that affects more than six million people and is likely to progress to dementia, but it is not normal aging.

    Reply
  2. zeinab rostami
    zeinab rostami says:

    Human memory is a complex and delicate cognitive ability that is prone to errors and inaccuracies. The insights provided by these studies are critical to our understanding of how the brain works and how we can enhance our memory performance, especially in situations where memory accuracy is essential, such as eyewitness testimony in legal settings. By continuing to explore the neural mechanisms underlying memory formation and conducting more research on strategies to improve memory accuracy, we can better understand the complexities of human memory and develop effective interventions for people who suffer from memory deficits.
    Personal opinion: To have a better life, education is for the brain, and how much it is used for the benefit of mankind, if more people gain knowledge, hunger, illness, or bitterness like this will prevent the light from entering people’s lives. The power to create a new world is the key to creating a life of education. It is up to your thoughts to see only the good things that we want in life

    Reply
  3. Alireza noche
    Alireza noche says:

    Comfortable and sufficient sleep is very important in strengthening our memory and improving our learning

    Reply
  4. Monir Vakili
    Monir Vakili says:

    My opinion is that many people may forget many memories during their life or replace them with wrong memories, which is normal, but increasing them in daily life and forgetting the details of life and people’s names is not natural. It is unormal and it is one of the symptoms of Alzheimer’s. We can definitely reduce the symptoms of forgetfness with mental training like playing chess, doing addition problems or etc.

    Reply
  5. ساناز سعادتی
    ساناز سعادتی says:

    Considering the importance of the subject of learning as well as the high value of time and its limitations, if you intend to learn, it is better to waste your time and save both time and energy by learning effectively

    Reply
  6. مبینا محمدزاده
    مبینا محمدزاده says:

    Hello, dear teacher I think everyone memory is different and daily engagement and daily activities affect memory.We should not forget that excitement and stress have a great effect on memory.

    Reply
  7. Fatemeh Ebrahimi
    Fatemeh Ebrahimi says:

    What is interesting is that false memory is the result of mistakes that memory has and is prone to

    Reply
  8. Nasim vafaii
    Nasim vafaii says:

    I have the experience of false memory. When I was 2 years old, something happened to me and I remember it with all the details, if I feel that this memory was formed in my mind due to hearing the description of the incident. It’s me, because I barely remember my 7-year-old memories.

    Reply
  9. Vafaii nasim
    Vafaii nasim says:

    I have the experience of false memory. When I was 2 years old, something happened to me and I remember it with all the details, if I feel that this memory was formed in my mind due to hearing the description of the incident. It’s me, because I barely remember my 7-year-old memories.

    Reply
  10. Sevda_jafari
    Sevda_jafari says:

    Münsterberg believed that these people were also vulnerable people who were pressured in the same way. She, who focused her research on the courts, published her ideas about obtaining confessions and coercing confessions from innocent people or factors that can influence testimony in a book called “The Detection of Crime”. did

    Reply
  11. Atro soleymani
    Atro soleymani says:

    Can a person directly contribute to the formation of false memory? Or is it a completely natural event?

    Reply
  12. Fatemeh Sarhadi
    Fatemeh Sarhadi says:

    Memory is our ability to encode, store, maintain and subsequently recall information and past experiences in the human brain.

    Reply
  13. Zahra Ahmadi
    Zahra Ahmadi says:

    I hope that recent research can be considered when thinking about memory recall and strategies to improve memory retention and retrieval.

    Reply
  14. Hannaneh Ghalandari
    Hannaneh Ghalandari says:

    My suggestion to strengthen and improve memory
    1-Sleeping: 2-Effect of exercise and movement in improving memory: 3-Using memorization techniques: 4-Music to strengthen memory: and….

    Reply
  15. Elika Khodadi
    Elika Khodadi says:

    I think that if a sad or accidental incident happened to a person, it can have a great impact on the formation of false memory. It was a very interesting article, thank you.

    Reply
  16. Bahar Javid
    Bahar Javid says:

    Hello dear professor. The article was great and useful. The Memory is one of the most complex organs in the human body, which has been studied about a lot. The interesting part of the article was presenting methods to improve memory retention, by doing which we can have a strong and ready memory. Another method to strengthen memory that is not mentioned in the article is taking pictures.
    I think in addition to having a strong memory, we should also try to be strong in the recovery phase to remember information quickly, which includes internal and external signs. It means to use signs while learning to make it easier to remember.

    Reply
  17. Davood galedari
    Davood galedari says:

    We conclude that memory, like all human factors, has errors, but the research on witnesses in the courts has been such that although their testimony differed in details and even the memories were not real, in most cases, the witness was correct in general.

    Reply
  18. Maryam farajkhah
    Maryam farajkhah says:

    Hi professor Memory is very important in our life, we should be able to strengthen it as we get older, even my personal opinion is that we must start learning something new like a special language, because this gives us the opportunity to use our memory.

    Reply
  19. Khadijeh sedaghat
    Khadijeh sedaghat says:

    Dear Doctor, I think it is difficult to believe that most people suffer from false memory. Our memory and memories are not as reliable as we think, even among people who usually have a very good memory, false memory can easily form.

    Reply
  20. Azadeh shokri
    Azadeh shokri says:

    Hello dear professor
    I think everyone memory is different and daily engagement and daily activities affect memory. False conservation is a bricated remainder of an even that’s can be used for persons of memory enhancements is the same adequate and appropriate sleep in creased activities and stress can alsodictate

    Reply
  21. Marzieh Hezbi
    Marzieh Hezbi says:

    Im Marzieh Hezbi from Iranian university.
    I had never heard of false memory, that was great.

    Reply
  22. Marzieh Hezbi
    Marzieh Hezbi says:

    What causes forgetfulness is our lack of concentration, and thinking about several things.

    Reply
  23. Nazila Farajzade
    Nazila Farajzade says:

    hi professor
    the brain is flexible and complex,but humans can learn and forget less with practice and repetition.

    Reply
  24. Anahita Bahreman
    Anahita Bahreman says:

    What happens in forgetfulness is that we go into another room to do work or talk to friends and suddenly forget what we wanted to say or what we wanted to say.

    In explaining this phenomenon, researchers say: Our memories are divided into different parts. Meanwhile, it is more difficult to remember the information of the previous episodes. When we cross a door, our brain automatically creates a new episode or event boundary, making it more difficult to recall the goal stored in the previous memory episode.

    By focusing on the goal or returning to the previous environment, we can remember or not forget what we have forgotten.

    But to strengthen memory, we can use these things:
    Games and intellectual activities
    Trying to remember
    Learning skills
    Exercise and healthy eating
    eating frankincense
    Vegetables and vitamins
    Eat fish with omega 3

    Reply
  25. leila asghari asl
    leila asghari asl says:

    Hello, dear teacher, in my opinion, when a person’s mind is busy with several important issues, the quality of memory may decrease, and he may not remember the events as they are. On the other hand, he may not be able to remember the events correctly, and an incomplete understanding of the same issue may cause false memory
    leila asghari asl.iranian university

    Reply
  26. Shirin farrokh
    Shirin farrokh says:

    We should not forget that excitement and stress have a great effect on memory. I lose my keys and things many times during the day. I would like to find the main reason for this problem. Another thing is that I am full of stress.

    Reply
  27. Zahra choopanbishe
    Zahra choopanbishe says:

    Hello
    Excessive use of false memory, does not cause short-term memory analysis?

    Reply
  28. chenarani
    chenarani says:

    The other issue of false memories was also very interesting, for example, in the courts, you can fully trust the human brain, because memory can create false and false memories and remember, for example, a person committed a crime that never happened and it is recorded in his memory, I think. Environmental conditions are also involved in this

    Reply
  29. Zahra choopanbishe
    Zahra choopanbishe says:

    Hello, doctor
    Excessive use of false memory, does not cause short-term memory to deteriorate?

    Reply
  30. chenarani
    chenarani says:

    This article was an interesting and thought-provoking topic for me. My take on this article is that this memory set has flexibility and its performance can be improved. It is true that genetics plays an important role, but lifestyle is not ineffective either. Exercise, healthy food, proper sleep, blood pressure control. and also activate the brain with new activities such as learning a language, solving puzzles, reading books

    Reply

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