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Metacognition in practice

A metacognition checklist

If you are new to meta-cognition, it will help to ask yourself the following questions about your teaching practice.


1. Have I included clear learning objectives?
Students need to understand what their learning objectives are so that they can plan how to achieve them. The process of planning should involve learners identifying which strategies they already know that could be applied in this new situation.

2. How am I going to encourage my students to monitor their learning?
Effective learners commonly use metacognitive strategies whenever they learn. However, they may fail to recognise which strategy is the most effective for a particular learning situation. Teachers can ask questions to prompt learners to monitor the strategies that they are using.

For example, before learners begin a task, prompt them to identify where the task might go wrong and how they could prevent this from happening. During the task encourage them to focus on the learning objectives and get them to think about how they can maintain that focus. This will encourage learners to think more actively about where they are now, where they are going and how to get there.

3. How can I create opportunities for learners to practise new strategies?
When you introduce your learners to a new strategy, give them the opportunity to use it both with support and independently. It is important to monitor your learners’ progress and provide them with feedback on the specific strategies they are using to help shape their learning process. (For further ideas for giving feedback and effective questioning, see Getting started with Assessment for Learning.)

4. How can I allow time for learner self-reflection?
Personal reflection enables learners to critically analyse their performance in relation to a particular task and consider what they might do differently to improve their performance in future tasks. It is important that teachers dedicate time for learners to reflect, and provide them with the tools to do so. One way of doing this is to use thinking journals as mentioned in the previous section.

5. Does the classroom environment support metacognitive practices?
Teachers are instrumental in shaping the culture of learning in a classroom. By establishing a supportive learning environment that fosters and anticipates metacognitive practices, these practices will become an integral part of the learning process. Check that you are modeling metacognitive practices effectively, giving your learners plenty of opportunity to work collaboratively with their peers, encouraging reflection and evaluating their progress.
36 replies
  1. Fateme Hemmati
    Fateme Hemmati says:

    I wish all teachers read this article at least once and give more importance to the development of students’ metacognitive skills.

    Reply
  2. Noush
    Noush says:

    Students should plan to learn to achieve what they want
    They should know when a mistake might happen and how to avoid it
    Support them to experience new things
    Teachers should consider time when they can easily think about how they can do better
    The environment of the place of education has a great impact on learning

    Reply
  3. Arshiya Farhangi
    Arshiya Farhangi says:

    Hi master,I finished reading this article now.as a teacher and pedagogue,it’s so important to teach the students how to work on their learning and thinking processes.by the approaches mentioned in the article,each student can learn and think better every time by different methods and techniques.

    Reply
  4. Paniz Shahbazi
    Paniz Shahbazi says:

    My teacher, I did not understand this part, what does it mean that learners use metacognitive strategy?
    And in my opinion, teachers play a fundamental role in both students’ personality and their learning (teaching method, type of behavior) from the very beginning.

    Reply
  5. ساناز سعادتی
    ساناز سعادتی says:

    Also, Piaget’s formal thinking obviously has a metacognitive nature. Because it requires thinking about propositions, hypotheses and imagined possibilities.

    Reply
  6. ساناز سعادتی
    ساناز سعادتی says:

    But this term, that is, metacognition, was first proposed by Flavell had previously proposed the term metamemory and named this term based on it

    Reply
  7. ساناز سعادتی
    ساناز سعادتی says:

    Metacognition refers to a person’s knowledge about his cognitive system and how to control it

    Reply
  8. ساناز سعادتی
    ساناز سعادتی says:

    From the lexical point of view, the prefix “Fra” means promotion and rise, and metacognition means knowledge and mastery of cognition, and knowledge at a higher level.

    Reply
  9. ساناز سعادتی
    ساناز سعادتی says:

    . Therefore, metacognition is cognitive, beyond normal cognition and thinking, and refers to a person’s awareness of his cognition, learning, and way of thinking.

    Reply
  10. ساناز سعادتی
    ساناز سعادتی says:

    .

    Metacognition means thinking about your thoughts. Thinking can be about what a person knows (metacognitive knowledge it can be about what a person is doing (metacognitive skills or it can be about a cognitive state and personal feeling (metacognitive experience

    Reply
  11. ساناز سعادتی
    ساناز سعادتی says:

    In order to distinguish between metacognitive thoughts and other thoughts, it is necessary to examine the source of metacognitive thoughts

    Reply
  12. hadis torkamandi
    hadis torkamandi says:

    Hi sir
    Students must understand their learning objectives to be successful.
    To create opportunities for learners to flexibly practice new strategies We must give them a chance and support and help, especially from the teacher’s side.

    Reply
  13. Fatemeh Ebrahimi
    Fatemeh Ebrahimi says:

    The metacognitive theory causes the extraordinary growth of the student and the teacher is responsible for leading this growth

    Reply
  14. Rozhan Khajehvandi
    Rozhan Khajehvandi says:

    Such a great and useful article for life.
    Thanks a lot for sharing your knowledge and information to us.

    Reply
  15. Reyhane Najafgholizade
    Reyhane Najafgholizade says:

    Metacognitive strategies are techniques to help students develop an awareness of their thinking processes as they learn.

    Reply
  16. Faezeh madadkhani
    Faezeh madadkhani says:

    In my opinion, in addition to educational magazines, informative and attractive films can be used so that they spend more time thinking and remember more.

    Reply
  17. Faezeh madadkhani
    Faezeh madadkhani says:

    The origin of metacognitive thoughts is related to one’s mental representation of that reality, which can include what one knows, how one works, and how one feels about doing that work.

    Reply
  18. Faezeh madadkhani
    Faezeh madadkhani says:

    As you mentioned in this article, another goal of metacognition training is to develop the skills of transferring what you have learned in multiple situations.ک

    Reply
  19. Faezeh madadkhani
    Faezeh madadkhani says:

    I completely agree with the third paragraph. In my opinion, they should be allowed to carry out strategies independently, but with support and monitoring.

    Reply
  20. Faezeh madadkhani
    Faezeh madadkhani says:

    Asking questions makes students focus more on that subject and learn that subject better

    Reply
  21. hadis torkamandi
    hadis torkamandi says:

    Hello teacher, don’t be tired, I think that all kinds of checklists are useful for teaching, but many teachers should know them

    Reply
  22. Faezeh madadkhani
    Faezeh madadkhani says:

    I agree, In my opinion, the process should be such that it engages their minds

    Reply
  23. mani dolati
    mani dolati says:

    It is true that students should have goals, but these goals and how to achieve them should be seen in madrasas.

    Reply
  24. Mohadese salimzade
    Mohadese salimzade says:

    It was an interesting article. Cognitive and metacognitive strategies are behaviors that students actively use during learning or problem solving to regulate and guide their performance. Learning culture plays a fundamental role in the classroom.

    Reply
  25. Mohadese salimzade
    Mohadese salimzade says:

    It was an interesting article. Cognitive and metacognitive strategies are behaviors that students actively use during learning or problem solving to regulate and guide their performance. Giving to the culture of learning in the classroom has a fundamental role.

    Reply
  26. zahra moradi
    zahra moradi says:

    Cognitive and metacognitive strategies are behaviors that students actively use during learning or problem solving to regulate and direct their own performance. These skills help students evaluate the results of their efforts and assess their mastery of the material they have read.

    Reply
  27. Sevda_jafari
    Sevda_jafari says:

    This concept was used in psychology before it was given this name. Harry Harlow (1949, cited by Seif, 2013) first used the concept of learning to learn in a series of experiments with monkeys. In this experiment, the monkeys were forced to solve the problems that were given to them. Harlow’s interesting finding was that the more problems the monkeys solved, the better they became at solving problems, that is, the monkeys learned how to learn.

    Reply
  28. Fatemeh Sarhadi
    Fatemeh Sarhadi says:

    Metacognitive refers to a person’s knowledge about his cognitive system and how to control it. The prefix “super” means to raise. Metacognition is cognitive, which means thinking about one’s thoughts, which thinking can be about what a person knows, it can be about a person’s cognitive and emotional state. To distinguish between metacognitive thoughts and other thoughts, it is necessary to examine the metacognitive source. Metacognitive thoughts do not originate from outside, and their source is related to the person’s mental representations of that reality, which can include what the person knows, how he works, and how he feels about doing that task.

    Reply
  29. Atiyeh soleymanian memandi
    Atiyeh soleymanian memandi says:

    The main goal of metacognitive theory is to help students to think and develop thinking skills. Another goal of metacognition training is to develop the skills of transferring the learned in multiple situations.
    Metacognitive strategies are extremely important, and they are used in the teaching of many subjects. Metacognitive strategies solve the learning needs of learners. Strategies are mental and practical activities that pave the way to achieve goals.

    Reply
  30. Hannanekazemi
    Hannanekazemi says:

    It is true that students should know what the goals are and achieve them based on the strategy and help of their teachers to focus on their goals and their work. and advance in the field of their interests and talents.

    Reply
    • Mahdi afsharmehr
      Mahdi afsharmehr says:

      Communication between students and teachers is very important and it is very important in the dynamics of the classroom and the understanding of the material

      Reply

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